Anatomy Checklist 19 Test 3

Term Definition
What are the boundaries of the scalp? Anteriorly from the superciliary arches to the external occipital protuberance and superior nuchal lines posteriorly. Laterally, it continues inferiorly to the zygomatic arch.
What are the layers of the scalp and some important facts about them? Skin, Connective tissue (dense; vessels & nerves here), Aponeurotic layers (occipitofrontalis muscle & galea aponeurotica), Loose connective tissue (facilitates scalp movement, infections tend to localize here), & Pericranium.
What does the aponeurotic layers of the scalp consist of? Consists of the occipitofrontalis muscle & the epicranial aponeurosis (galea aponeurotica)
What does the "scalp proper" consist of? Consists of the first 3 layers of the scalp (skin, connective tissue-dense, aponeurotics layers) that are tightly held together
What are the muscles of the scalp and what do they do? The occipitofrontalis muscle. Has a frontal belly and occipital belly, w/ the galea aponeurotica connecting them. They move the scalp, wrinkle the forehead, and raise the eyebrows.
What innervates the occipitofrontalis muscle? Temporal branches of the facial nerve [VII] innervates the frontal belly. The posterior auricular branch (facial nerve [VII] innervates the occipital belly.
What is the galea aponeurotica? The aponeurotic tendon that connects the frontal belly and occipital belly of the occipitofrontalis muscle. Also called epicranial aponeurosis.
What is the importance of the loose connective tissue in the scalp? 1. B/c of the consistency of this later, infections tend to localize & spread through it easily. 2. In scalping injuries, this is the layer where separation occurs. 3. Blunt trauma can result in hemorrhage in this layer.
What is the blood supply to the scalp? ANT & SUP: branches of ophthalmic artery (from internal carotid artery)–1. supratrochlear and 2. supra-orbital arteries. LAT & POST: branches of external carotid artery–3. posterior auricular, 4. occipital, & 5. superficial temporal arteries
What is the innervation of the scalp? Sensory innervation from cranial nerves ant. to the ears and vertex (branches of trigeminal nerve [V]) & cervical nerves post to the ears and vertex (C2 and C3)
What innervates the scalp anterior to the ears and vertex? Branches of the trigeminal nerve [V]. Supratrochlear nerve, supra-orbital nerve, zygomaticotemporal nerve, & auriculotemporal nerve.
What innervates the scalp posterior to the ears and vertex? Branches of cervical nerves C2 & C3. Great auricular nerve, lesser occipital nerve, greater occipital nerve, & third occipital nerve.
What is the lymphatic drainage of the scalp? Occipital region: to occipital nodes and then to upper deep cervical nodes. Post to vertex: to mastoid nodes (retro-auricular & post auricular nodes). Ant to vertex: to pre-auricular & parotid nodes. Some forehead to submandibular nodes.
What nerve innervates the muscles of facial expression? The facial nerve [VII].
What are the facial expression muscles of the orbital group called and what are their functions? Orbicularis oculi, with palpebral part and orbital part, and Corrugator supercilii. Palpebral part closes eyelid gently. Orbital part closes eyelids forcefully. Corrugator supercilii draws eyebrows medially and downward.
What are the facial muscles in the nasal groups? What are their functions? Nasalis (w/ transverse part & alar part), procerus, & depressor septi. Transverse part compresses nasal aperture. Alar part draws cartilage down & laterally, opening nostril. Procerus draws down medial angle of eyebrows. Dep septi pulls nose inferiorly
What are the lower group of oral muscles? and their functions? Depressor anguli oris (draws corner of mouth down & lat.), depressor labii inferioris (draws lower lip down & lat.), & mentalis (raises & protrudes lip as it wrinkles skin on chin).
What are the upper group of oral muscles? 1. Risorius, 2. zygomaticus major, 3. zygomaticus minor, 4. levator labii superioris, 5. levator labii superioris alaque nasi, 6.levator anguli oris
What are the functions of risorius? zygomaticus major? zygomaticus minor? Risorius- retracts corner of mouth. Zygo major: draws corner of mouth up and lat. Zygo minor: draws upper lip upward.
What are the functions of the levator facial muscles? -Lev. labii superioris- raises upper lip & helps form nasolabial furrow. -Lev. labii sup. alaeque nasi- raises upper lip & opens nostril. -Lev. anguli oris- raises corner of mouth; helps form nasolabial furrow.
Besides the upper & lower groups of oral muscles, what are the other major 2 muscles of facial expression? Their functions? Orbicularis oris (Closes lips, protrudes lips). Buccinator (Presses the cheek against teeth; compresses distended cheeks).
What are the facial muscles around the ears? Anterior, superior, & posterior auricular. Anterior draws ear up and forward. Superior elevates ear. Posterior draws ear up and backward.
What is the platysma and its function? Subcutaneous facial muscle that originates from the fascia of the cervical region & inserts in the mandible & skin around mouth. It tenses the skin of neck & can move the lower lip and corners of the mouth down. Innerv by cervical branches of facial nerve
What are the arteries supplying the face? 1. Facial (sup labial, inf labial, lat nasal, & angular) 2. Transverse facial 3. Branches of max (infra-orbital, buccal, mental) 4. Branches of ophthalmic (zygomaticofacial, zygomaticotemporal, dorsal nasal)
What are the veins of the face? 1. Facial (angular->facial->int jugular) 2.Transverse facial 3. Intracranial venous connections (corner of orbit & ophthalmic veins; cheek area w/ veins from infra-orbital foramen; deep facial vein w/ pterygoid plexus)
What are the bones forming the facial skeleton? Paired: nasal bones, palatine bones, lacrimal bones, zygomatic bones, maxillae bones, inferior nasal conchae. Unpaired: vomer
Surpra-orbital foramen- location? Structures passing through? In the medial part of the superior rim of each orbit. Supra-orbital nerve & vessels.
Infraorbital foramen- location? Structures passing through? On the anterior surface of the body of the maxilla, just below the inferior rim of the orbit. Infra-orbital nerve & vessels.
Mental foramen- location? Structures passing through? On lateral surface of each side of the body of the mandible. Mental nerve & mental vessels.
Zygomaticofacial foramen- location? Structures passing through? On the lateral surface of the zygomatic bone; small. Zygomaticofacial nerve.
Incisive foramen- location? Structures passing through? Funnel-shaped; in anterior of hard plate immediately behind incisors. Nasopalatine nerve & sphenopalatine vessels
Greater palatine foramen- location? Structures passing through? Posterior angle of hard palate; formed mainly by horizontal plate of palatine bone & laterally by adjacent part of maxilla. Greater palatine nerve & vessels.
Lesser palatine foramen- location? Structures passing through? Posterior & lateral to the greater palatine foramen, in the pyramidal process of the palatine bone. Lesser palatine nerves & vessels.
Pterygoid canal- location? Structures passing through? In middle cranial fossa, through the medial pterygoid plate of sphenoid bone to back wall of pterygopalatine fossa. Pterygoid nerve & vessels.
Foramen lacerum- location? Structures passing through? In base of skull b/t sphenoid, apex of petrous temporal, & basilar part of occipital. Filled with cartilage. Greater & deep petrosal nerve pass through.
Foramen magnum- location? Structures passing through? Large oval in occipital bone. End of brainstem/beginning of spinal cord; vertebral arteries; spinal roots of accessory nerve [XI]; meninges.
Condylar canal- location? Structures passing through? In the condyloid fossa of lateral parts of occipital bone. Emissary veins.
Hypoglossal canal- location? Structures passing through? In occipital bone, hidden medially & superiorly to each occipital condyle. Hypoglossal nerve [XII] and vessels.
Jugular foramen-location? Structures passing through? Behind the carotid canal and formed in front by petrous portion of temporal bone, & behind by occipital bone. Large. Internal jugular vein; inferior petrosal sinus; glossopharyngeal nerve [IX]; vagus nerve [X]; accessory nerve [XI]; sigmoid sinus
Stylomastoid foramen- location? Structures passing through? B/t the styloid & mastoid processes of the temporal bone. Facial nerve [VII]
What is the lymphatic drainage of the face 1. Submental nodes 2. Submandibular nodes 3. Pre-auricular & parotid nodes
What is the sensory innervation of the face? From branches of trigeminal nerve [V]. 1. Ophthalmic [V1]- supra-orbital, surpratrochlear, lacrimal, infratrochlear external nasal 2. Maxillary [V2]- zygomaticotemporal, zygomaticofacial, infra-orbital 3. Mandibular [V3]- buccal, mental, auriculotemporal
What is the motor innervation of the face? 5 terminal groups of branches of the facial nerve [VII]. Temporal, zygomatic, buccal, marginal mandibular, & cervical branches.
What is Bell's palsy (facial nerve [VII] palsy)? Facial paralysis resulting in inability to control facial muscles on affected side. Typically comes on over 48 hours. Cause is unkown, but may be viral infection. Also, lesions may affect facial nerve along its course.
How of lesions in different locations affect the presentation of Bell's palsy? Central lesion (brainstem; ipsilateral whole or contralateral lower if above motor nucleus). Lesion at geniculate ganglion (ipsilateral whole, taste to ant 2/3s, lacrimation, & some salivation). Lesions at stylomastoid foramen (ipsilateral; common)
What is trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux)? A complex sensory disorder of the sensory root of the trigeminal nerve. Pain typ. in region of mand [V3] & max [V2] nerves. Usually sudden onset and excruciating. Cause unknown, but may involve adjacent vessels, or loss of myelin around trigem. nerve.
Where do the paranasal sinuses open into the nasal cavity? SER: Sphenoid sinus. SM: post. ethmoidal air cells. MM: 1.Infundibulum- frontal sinus, ant. ethmoidal air cells. 2. Ethmoidal bulla- middle ethmoidal air cells. 3. Hiatus semilunaris- maxillary sinus. IM: Nasolacrimal duct
What is the lateral wall of the nose made of? Bones- Ethmoid labyrinth, sup. concha, middle concha, unicate process. Perp. plate of palatine. Medial pterygoid plate of sphenoid. Medial surfaces of lacrimal & maxillae bones. Inf concha. Cartilage: Lat process of septal cart. Major & minor alar cartil
What is the ethmoidal bulla? Prominent bulge formed by the middle ethmoidal air cells on the medial wall of the ethmoidal labyrinth
What is the hiatus semilunaris? Crescent-shaped groove in the lateral wall of the nasal cavity just inferior to the ethmoidal bulla.
What is the innervation (general sensation, special sensation, & motor) of the tongues? SENSORY -Ant 2/3s (oral): general (mand. nerve [V3] via lingual nerve) & special (facial nerve [VII] via chorda tympani) -Post 1/3 (pharyngeal): general & special via glossopharyngeal nerve [IX]. MOTOR: hypoglossal nerve [XII] except palatoglossus (vagus)
What are the extrinsic muscles of the tongue? Palatoglossus, styloglossus, hyoglossus, & genioglossus.
What are the intrinsic muscles of the tongue? Superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal, transverse, & vertical.
What are the different types of papillae of the tongue? Filiform (small cone-shaped, end in 1 or more points), fungiform (rounder/larger, conc along margins), vallate (largest, blunt ended cylindrical; 8-12 forming V-shape posterior), foliate (linear folds of mucosa along sides of toungue)
What papillae of the tongue have taste buds? All papillae EXCEPT for filiform papillae have taste buds.
What is the lymphatic drainage of the tongue? Lymphatics from tongue ultimately drain into deep cervical chain. Pharyngeal part into jugulodigastric node of dcc. Oral part directly into dcc or indirectly through submental/submand nodes 1st. Tip of tongue into submental and then jugulo-hyoid of dcc
What are the palatine tonsils? Collection of lymphoid tissue located in back of throat b/t the palatoglossal arch anteriorly & palatopharyngeal arch posteriorly. Flesh-colored, pinkish.
What is the blood supply of the tonsil? Supplied mainly by tonsillar branch of the facial artery. Venous drainage by venous plexus.
What is the Waldeyeres ring of tonsils and what is it composed of? Ring of lymphoid tissue; first line of defense against infection. Inferiorly to superiorly composed of lingual tonsil, palatine tonsils, lateral bands of lymphoid tissue, tubal tonsils, & pharyngeal (adenoid) tonsil.
What is the lingual tonsil? A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior 1/3 of the tongue (pharyngeal part).
What is the tubal tonsil? Located posterior to the opening of the Eustachian tube on the lateral wall of the nasopharynx
What is the torus tubarius? The elevation formed by the base of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube. Very close to the tubal tonsil.
What are the emissary veins? They connect the extracranial w/ the intracranial venous system. Drain from the scalp into the larger meningeal veins & dural venous sinuses. Important role in selective cooling of head. Route for infections b/c of no valves.
What are the dural venous sinuses? Venous drainage of the brain empties into here. Endothelial-lined spaces b/t the outer periosteal & the inner meningeal layers of the dura mater, eventually leading to internal jugular veins.
What dural sinuses enter into the internal jugular vein? Inferior petrosal sinus and sigmoid sinus.
What is the only muscle of the soft palate to elevate the soft palate above the neutral position? Levator veli palatini. Tested by asking patient to say "ah"
What muscle of the soft palate tenses it and opens the pharyngotympanic tube? The tensor veli palatini. Composed of a vertical muscular part and horizontal fibrous part.
What muscles of the soft palate depress the soft palate? Palatopharyngeus (move palatopharyngeal arch toward midline). Palatoglossus (moves palatoglossal arch toward midline)
What are the major salivary glands? Paired parotid, submandibular, & sublingual glands.
What is the course of the parotid duct? Passes ant. across external surface of masseter muscle. Turnss med. to penetrate buccinator muscle. Opens into oral cavity adjacent to second maxillary molar.
What structures are in the parotid gland? The facial nerve starts dividing, the retromandibular vein (formed by union of superficial temporal & maxillary vein in the gland), & the external parotid artery.
What is the course of submandibular duct? Emerges from medial side of deep part of gland and passes forward to open onto the sublingual caruncle beside the base of the frenulum of the tongue. The lingual nerve loops under the submandibular duct as it ascends into the tongue.
What are the ducts from the sublingual glands? The minor sublingual ducts are small & open onto the crest of the sublingual fold. The major sublingual duct opens w/ the submandibular duct
What is the parasympathetic innervation to the salivary glands? Above the level of oral fissure: fibers carried w/ greater petrosal nerve of [VII]. Below the level of oral fissure: fibers carried by chorda tympani of [VII].
What is the parasympathetic innervation of the parotid gland? Carried by the glossopharyngeal nerve [IX] and then auriculotemporal nerve from mandibular nerve [V3]
What is the sympathetic innervation of the salivary glands? Preganglionic nerves in thoracic segments T1-T3 which synapses in the superior cervical ganglion
What is the origin & insertion of the masseter muscle? Origin: zygomatic arch & maxillary process of zygomatic bone. Insertion: Lateral surface of ramus of mandible
What is the origin & insertion of the temporalis muscle? Origin: temporal fossa. Insertion: Coronoid process of mandible & anterior margin of ramus almost to last molar tooth.
What is the origin & insertion of the medial pterygoid muscle? Origin: Deep head- medial surface of lat plate of pterygoid process & pyramidal process of palatine. Superficial head- tuberosity of maxilla & pyram. process of palatine. Insertion: medial surface of mandible near angle.
What is the origin & insertion of the lateral pterygoid muscle? Origin: Upper head- roof of temporal fossa. Lower head- lat surface of lateral plate of pterygoid process. Insertion: Capsule of TMJ
What is the innervation of the muscles of mastication? All by branches of the mandibular nerve [V3]. Massester- masseteric nerve. Temporalis- deep temporal nerves. Medial pterygoid- nerve to medial pterygoid. Lateral pterygoid- nerve to lateral pterygoid.
What is the function of the masseter muscle? Elevation of mandible
What is function of temporalis muscle? Elevation & retraction of mandible
What is the function of the medial pterygoid? Elevation & side to side movements of mandible
What is the function of the lateral pterygoid? Protrusion and side-side movements of the mandible. Also depresses mandible.
What is the arterial supply to the teeth? ALL by branches of maxillary artery. Lower teeth- inferior alveolar artery (divides into incisor and mental branches opposite first premolar). Upper teeth- Posterior superior alveolar artery & anterior superior alveolar artery.
What innervates the teeth? ALL by branches of trigeminal [V]. Lower- inferior alveolar nerve (incisive & mental nerve branches adjacent to first premolar). Upper- anterior (canines/incisors), middle (premolars), & posterior (molars) superior alveolar nerves