Biochemistry notes

Question Answer
What is chemestry? Study of what substances are made of and how they changed and combined
What is an atom? Fundamental unit of matter
What are the three subatomic particles in an atom? Neutrons protons and electrons
What is an element? Each different kind of atom is a different element. Examples are carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen
What is a compound? Two or more elements chemically combined in definite proportions. Examples are CO2 H2O NaCl and C6 h-12 o-6.
What is a molecule? Type of compound made of non-metal only
What is an isomer? Same molecule formula, different structural formula
What is a chemical reaction? Process leading to changes in matter. Examples 2 H2 + O2 equals 2h20
What two groups are compounds classified in? Inorganic compounds and organic compounds
What are inorganic compounds? Compounds that come from nonliving substances
What is an organic compound? Compounds that come from living substances
What is biochemistry? Chemistry of living organisms
What is an organic compound? Compounds made by cells containing carbon. Example C6 h-12 o-6 equals gluclose. Non example CO2 equals carbon dioxide.
What is the compound of glucose? C6H1206
What are Macromolecules? Organic compounds in living cells are usually complex compounds that are very large
How are macromolecules formed? Macromolecules are formed by a process called polymerization. small units called monomers join together to form polymers
What are the four groups of organic compounds? Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
What is the job of a carbohydrate Provides energy for all organisms
What is the main source of energy for cells? Carbohydrates
How are most carbohydrates manufactured? Most carbohydrates are manufactured from Plants by photosynthesis
What elements does carbohydrates contain? Carbon hydrogen oxygen
What are some food sources for carbohydrates? Fruits vegetables grains pasta, rice, sugar, cookies, cakes
What are the three groups of carbohydrates Monosaccharide disaccharide and polysaccharide
What is a monosaccharide? Single sugar, basic structural unit from which larger carbohydrates are built
What do sugars usually end -ose
Where is glucose found Most common sugar, in every cell, produced by green plants
Where is fructose found Fructose is found in fruits
Where is galactose found Galactose is found in sugar in milk
What is a disaccharide Double sugar
What is sucrose Cane sugar, table sugar
What is it called when water is released in a chemical reaction? Dehydration synthesis
What does polysaccharide mean Many sugars
What is starch It's a polysaccharide stored in plants
What is glycogen It's a polysaccharide stored in animals, stored in liver and muscles
What is cellulose It's a polysaccharide that gives support and structure to plant cells, fiber, most abundant organic chemical on Earth
What is a monomer It's a general term for any smaller compound like me join together to make larger compounds
What is the monomer of a carbohydrate Glucose
What are proteins needed for Proteins growth, maintenance, and repair of living materials
What fight's diseases Antibodies made of proteins
What controls the rate of chemical reactions in cells Enzymes made of proteins
Food source for protein Lean meat, fish, eggs, cheese, nuts, beans, Dairy
What is the monomer of a protein Amino acid
What elements are in a protein Carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen
How many different amino acids are there 20
What are catalysts in living organisms Enzymes
What are enzymes made of Protein
What happens to an enzyme during a reaction Enzymes are not changed in a reaction and can be reused
What is the lock and key hypothesis Explains how Enzymes work
What is a substrate A substance upon which an enzyme Acts
When naming enzymes what do you add to the end to make a substrate name -ase
Maltose is a substrate Maltase is an enzyme
Protein is a substrate Proteases is an enzyme
What do enzymes do They speed up digestion of foods
The function of a lipid Energy storage
What part of the cell does it makeUp Cell membrane
What are hormones like estrogen and testosterone Lipids
What are some examples of a lipid FATZ, oils, phospholipids and cholesterol, steroids, waxes
What is the monomer of a lipid Glycerol and Three fatty acids
What elements are in a lipid Carbon hydrogen and oxygen
Where do saturated fats come from They generally come from animal fats
Why are saturated fats bad for you They deposit in arteries and can cause heart disease
Where do unsaturated fats come from Generally from plant oils
Are unsaturated fats good for you Yes
Where does bad cholesterol(LDL) go to It goes to cells, excess deposit in arteries
What does good cholesterol(HDL) do It gets rid of excess LDL,cholesterol, in arteries
What is the function of a nucleic acid Function is to store and transmit genetic information from parent to offspring
What are some examples of nucleic acids DNA and RNA
What elements do nucleic acids contain Carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen and phosphorus
What is the monomer of a nucleic acid Nucleotide
What are the three components of a nucleotide Five carbon (deoxyribose or ribos) .
Phosphate group.
Nitrogenous base.