Biochemistry Unit 2 Biology

Term Definition
Lipid a fat molecule or a molecule that has similar properties; examples include oils, waxes, and steroids
Life substance the substance of a living cell (including cytoplasm and nucleus)
pH measurement of acidity; related to free hydrogen ion concentration in solution
Substrate a part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
Competitive inhibition is a form of enzyme inhibition where binding of the inhibitor to the active site on the enzyme prevents binding of the substrate and vice versa.
Carbohydrate a class of molecules that includes sugars, starches, and fiber; contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Monomer molecular subunit of a polymer
Acid any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water; turn blue litmus paper red and react with bases and some metals to form salts
Active site on an enzyme, the site that attaches to a substrate
Protein an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
Polymer a large molecule that is formed by more than five monomers, or small units
Fatty acid hydrocarbon chain often bonded to glycerol in a lipid
Denature destroy the characteristic properties of (a protein or other biological macromolecule) by heat, acidity, or other effects that disrupt its molecular conformation.
Non-competitive inhibition is a type of enzyme inhibition where the inhibitor reduces the activity of the enzyme and binds equally well
Nucleic acid an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
Monosaccharide a simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate
Glycerol backbone is found in all lipids known as triglycerides.
Activation energy the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
Biomolecule any molecule that is present in living organisms, including large macromolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids,
Disaccharide a sugar formed from two monosaccharides
Peptide bond the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid
Anabolic The phase of metabolism in which simple substances are synthesized into the complex materials of living tissue.
Hydrophobic having little or no affinity for water.
Macromolecule a very large molecule, a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms.
Polysaccharide a carbohydrate (e.g., starch, cellulose, or glycogen) whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together.
Enzyme a molecule, either protein or RNA, that acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions
Catabolic something that breaks down complex molecules into simpler ones
Hydrophilic having a tendency to mix with, dissolve in, or be wetted by water. The opposite of hydrophobic
Base any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water; turn red litmus paper blue and react with acids to form salts