Biology chap1 and 2

Question Answer
The study of life Biology
The study of plants Botany
The study of animals Zoology
The physical structure of an organism Anatomy
The study of life process in an organism (body functions) Physiology
Living things Organisms
Regions where particular organisms live Habitats
The parts of a plant (such as roots, stems, and leaves) that are not involved in reproduction Vegetative plant parts
The parts of a plant ( such as flower, fruits, and seeds) involved in reproduction Reproductive plant parts
A root system with one large main root growing down with many smaller secondary roots growing out from it Taproot system
A root system where the primary roots stay small and many slender secondary roots grow from them in many directions Fibrous root system
Basic structural unit of all living things Cell
An organism that makes its own food Autotroph
An organism that obtains their food source outside of themselves (can't make own food) Heterotroph
A plant that loses its leaves before winter Deciduous
Flowering plants that produce seeds covered by fruit Angiosperms
Plants that live for one year (one growing season) Annuals
Plants that live two years to complete life cycle Biennials
Plants that live year after year Perennials
Flat, green portion of a leaf Blade
Leafstalk Petiole
Group of specialized tissues working together Organ
Group of specialized organs working together to preform a particular purpose System
Made up of specialized cells working together Tissue
Vascular tissue (a type of vessel) that transports water and dissolved minerals upward Xylem
Vascular tissue that transports food made in the leaves downward Phloem
Tiny openings (pores) in the leaves which are more abundant on the underside of a leaf Stomata
Cells on either side of the stoma that control the opening and closing of the pore Guard cell
The loss of water vapor from leaves and stems that helps pull water against gravity up the plant Transpiration
Pattern of veins within leaves Venation
The fluid medium inside the cell which suspends the organelles Cytoplasm
"Little organ-like" structures within a cell Organelles
Special structures that contain chlorophyll (a green pigment) that capture the light of the sun to manufacture food Chloroplasts
The process whereby the "cell burns" sugar as fuel for energy Cellular respiration
A special layer of cells at the base of the petiole that severs the connections between the petiole and the stem Abscission layer
The water in the guard cells which produces pressure that keep the stomata open Turgor pressure
When a plant loses more water by transpiration than it can absorb by the root Wilting
Three major fields of biology Botany, zoology, human anatomy and physiology
Why botany is important 1) its our food 2) drugs and antibiotics 3)resources (lumber, cotton)
Dicot characteristics Two cotyledons, broad flat leaves with branching veins, 4-5 petals, taproot
Monocot characteristics One cotyledon, parallel venation, 3 petals, fibrous root system
Opposite leaf arrangement 2 leaves grow from each node
Alternate leaf arrangement One leaf grows from each petiole in alternating pattern
Whorled leaf pattern 3 or 4 leaves grow from each node
Rosette leaf pattern Cluster of leaves grow at base of plant
Three main types of plant tissue Vascular, meristematic( produces new tissue), structural (makes up structure)
Four types of structural tissue Epidermal(protects and covers plant), cork (waterproofs), parenchyma (makes and stores food), support and strengthening
Reactants for photosynthesis Carbon dioxide, water, light energy
Catalyst for photosynthesis Light energy
Structure in plant cell responsible for photosynthesis Chloroplasts
Leaf pigments Xanthophyll (yellowish)
Carotene (yellowish-orange color)
Anthocyanin (bright red blue and purple)
Factors that can affect the rate of photosynthesis Available Carbon dioxide amount, temperature, shortage of water, intensity of light striking the leaf (most important)