Term Definition
Basic ESOL instruction in English/Language Arts, regardless of delivery model approach.
Basic Subject Areas instruction in computer literacy, mathematics, science and social studies.
Comprehensive English Language Learning Assessment Florida’s annual language proficiency assessment that tests listening, speaking, reading and writing.
CELLA Comprehensive English Language Learning Assessment
ELL English Language Learner
ELL Committee A committee composed of ESOL teachers, administrator or designee, guidance counselors, social workers, and school psychologists
LY English Language Learner enrolled in classes specifically
designed for English Language Learners.
LF The student is being followed up for a two-year period after having exited from the ESOL program.
LEP Limited English proficient
LEP committee A committee of ESOL teachers ,the home language teacher ,and administrator plus guidance counselor, social worker, school psychologist, or other educators as needed for the situation
Phonetics The study of the production of sounds in speech
Verb tenses tells you when a person did something or when something existed or happened.
Cultural adjustment When people from different cultures are subjected to changes in their beliefs, habits, and customs.
Acculturation the process of social, psychological, and cultural change that stems from blending between cultures, but the culture groups remain distinct
Assimilation The process of integration of immigrants or
Minorities into the predominant culture.
Phonology The study of sounds and patterns of particular languages
Intonation The way the voice rises and falls in speech
Stress The emphasis placed on syllables or words
Morpheme The smallest unit of meaning in a language.
Morphology The study of how morphemes are combined to make words
Syntax How words are arranged into phrases or sentences
Semantics The study of the meaning of language
Voiced Sounds made by vibrating the vocal cords
Voiceless Sounds made without vibrating the vocal cords
Place of Articulation The point where to speech organs come together to make a sound.
Labial Sounds requiring the complete or partial closure of the lips
Nasalization In which air comes through the nose to make a sound
Aspiration A burst of air out of the mouth to make a sound
Intonation The way the voice rises and falls in speech
Stress The emphasis placed on a particular syllables or words
Vowel reduction The shortening or diminishing of a vowel sound occurs with Manny I'm stressed vowels in English
Stem A base word
Root A base word
Affix A bound morphine that is attached to a root word to change its meeting
Pragmatics The meaning in context.
Utterances Speech acts of one or more words that contain a single idea and are surrounded on both sides by silence.
Sociolinguistics The study of language and its relation to society and culture.
Language policy The set of actions a government takes to regulate what languages are spoken.
Pidgin I grammatically simplified mode of communicating that uses elements of both languages
Communicative competence Being able to speak a language bro appropriately in the social context as well as correctly in terms of rules and structure
Linguistic competence Knowledge of the linguistic components of a language such as morphology, syntax,and semantics
Sociolinguistic competence Using language in a socially appropriate way
Discourse competence The ability to arrange smaller units of language like phrases and sentences into letters speeches conversations and articles
Strategic competence The ability to recognize and repair breakdowns in communication through strategic planning or redirecting
BICS Basic interpersonal communication skills
Basic interpersonal communication skills Social skills students use in every day life when socializing on the playground, in the cafeteria, and outside of school.
CLAP Cognitive academic language proficiency
Cognitive academic language proficiency Language needed for academic work and study
Antecedent The noun the pronoun replaces
Relative pronouns Pronouns that begin dependent clauses.
Interrogative pronouns Pronounce to begin questions like who what or where.
Demonstrative pronouns Pronouns that play now or draw attention to something or someone. Example of this or that
Indefinite pronouns simply replace nouns to avoid unnecessary repetition.
Helping Verbs Verbs that go in front of the main verb that are used to indicate tense
Replace Dallas to avoid Unnecessary repetition
Preposition Set up relationships in time or space within a sentence
Conjunctions Short words that connect words, phrases, or sentences
Active voice (verb) The subject of the sentence performs the main action of the sentence
Passive Voice (verb) The action itself is empathized
Direct Object The noun that receives the action of the verb
Adjectives Words that describe or modify nouns and pronouns.
Adverb clause A dependent clause that modifies a verb adjective or adverb in the main or independent clause of a sentence
Prepositions Words that set up relationships in time or space with in a sentence
Prepositional phrase The preposition along with the object of the preposition
Correlative conjunctions Pairs that connect two balanced clauses.
Subordinating clauses Words that joined dependent to independent clauses
Subject What the sentence is about.
Simple present Used to talk about habits and unchanging general truths and facts.
Simple past Used to talk about things that happened, began and ended, at a certain point in the past.
Simple future Used to talk about events in the future
Present perfect Used to talk about events in the past that happen at an unspecified time.
Past perfect Used to talk about an event in the past that happen before another event in the past
Future perfect Used to talk about something in the future that will be completed by a certain time or before another event
Predicate Describes what the subject is doing or being, it contains the verb and any modifiers or objects that accompany it.
Phrase A group of words that communicates a partial idea in the and lacks
either a subject or predicate
Prepositional phrase A phrase that begins with a preposition and ends with an object of the preposition
Verb phrase A phrase composed of the main verb along with its helping verbs
Noun phrase A phrase that consists of a noun and it's modifiers
Sensorimotor Age from birth to two year. Based on physical interactions and experiences
Preoperational stage From 2 to 7 years of age. Kids are very self-centered
Concrete operational stage Ages 7 to 11. Increased intelligence, use inductive reasoning, and capable of recognizing others perspectives.
Formal operational stage Ages 11 and up. Demonstrate intelligence through logical use of symbols and their relationship to abstract concepts.
Connectionism Language comprehension and production abilities develop through continual engagement with language.
Behaviorist Theory Suggests that repeated exposure to stimuli can create learning. The more frequently a behavior is performed, the more quickly it will become habit
Linguistic set A group of words and rules that compose an individual's working knowledge of a language.
Universal grammar Children are born with the inlet ability to understand the human voice and to distinguish between different parts of language
Poverty of Stimulus Children are not born with enough exposure to their native languages to explain their ability to understand phonemes and therefore this exposure cannot account for the sum or their learned language.
Pre-speech Stage Infants learn to pay attention, inflection, and rhythm before they begin to speak.
Transfer When one applies knowledge of a first language on to another
Cognates Visually similar words, in different languages.
False Cognates Words that appear similar but are different in meaning
Inter language The learners present understanding of the language he is learning
Fossilization A boy in second language acquisition in which a learners growth freezes in place.
Intrinsic motivation Characterized by one's personal drive to succeed or learn
Extrinsic motivation Motivation that relies more on extra rewards for behaviors