Language and Lit. Chapter 3

Question Answer
stage 1 (birth to 2 months) spontaneous- crying, grunting, fussing, burping, sneezing, some vowel like sounds
stage 2 (2-4 months) cooing- "ooh" "ah", laughing, comfort state vocalizations and chuckles, screeches
stage 3 (6 months and older) babbling- consonant-vowel sequence, ability to hear own and others vocalizations
stage 4 (10 months and older) jargon stage- strings of sounds and syllables with a variety of stress and intonations.
sounds first spoken /m/d/p/b/t
infant signaling using body- arms up, reaching, crying
Major tasks of learning language phonetics, phonology, phonemes, syntax, semantics, pragmatics
holophrases single words representing whole idea
word spurt learning lots of words, between 2-18 years, children learn 9 new words per day
Phonics (hooked on phonics) (general) method of teaching children to read, study of sounds of the human speech, how sounds are pronounced, communicated and received, school-age skills.
phonology (specific) broader study of speech sounds and their organization, sound system of speech, patterns in language, how sounds are organized and used, how sounds combine and change in combination
phonemes (nemo- small) small unit of sound that hints to different meaning /m/ or /sh/
syntax grammar- rules for what kinds of words, parts of the language or vocabulary you can put in what order. (arrangement)
semantics Meaning of vocabulary in a sentence. (Meaning)
pragmatics study of what speaker "mean" vs. what the actual words might mean by themselves. ex: carve a turkey, raining cats and dogs. what is implied, situational context. (unstate/implied)