Question Answer
What were some causes of the evolution of nursing practice? 1.Changing gender roles in society, esp. women's
2. Religious values
3. War
Who were the Knights of Saint Lazarus? Catholic men who tended to those with leprosy, syphilis, and skin conditions
How did war contribute to the evolution of nursing practice? It increased the need for nurses and advancement of nursing practice through changes in anesthetics, blood typing, infection control, and prosthetics.
What was the Cadet Nurse Corps? Founded in World War II, it was a movement that brought about the youngest group of medical personnel
Who was Florence Nightingale? Considered the first visionary nursing leader, she decreased mortality rates during the Crimean War by introducing hand washing, clean clothes, clean linens, clean are, clean water, and sunlight policies
Who were Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth? Pioneers during the Civil War who cared for and led slaves to safety through underground railroad
Who was Dorothea Dix? She was a Union superintendent responsible for recruiting and supervising nurses during the Civil War
Who were Walt Whitman and Louisa May Alcott? Writers and nursing volunteers
Who was Clara Barton? She cared for soldiers on the battlefield during the Civil War and established the Red Cross
Who was Linda Richards? She introduced nursing uniforms as well as nurses' and doctors' notes and explained the difference between note type
Who was Lillian Ward? She founded public health nursing such as social services, education, and nursing and was the first to offer services to the New York slums
Who was Mary Mahoney? She was the first African American professional nurse, working for acceptance and equal opportunity
Who was Lavinia Dock? Supported women's rights which resulted in the constitutional amendment that allowed women to vote
Who was Margaret Sanger? Supported women's right by creating the first birth control clinic
Who was Mary Breckinridge? She was a pioneer nurse who rode on horseback through the Appalachians to establish frontier nursing service and establish the first midwifery school
What are the three types of nursing recipients and what's the difference between them? 1. Consumer: Individual or group in a community using a service or commodity
2. Patient: Individual waiting for or undergoing treatment
3. Client: Individual who engages in the advice or services of another
What are four important duties in nursing practice? 1. Promotion of health and wellness
2. Prevention of illness
3. Restoration of health
4. Care for the dying
Describe the evolution of men in nursing: Men were denied into the Military Nurse Corps in WWII and were denied into nursing programs until the 20th century. The American Nursing Association denied men membership until 1930 and State Associations until the 1950s. Now, men make up 10% of nurses
Who is Luther Christman? The Dean of Vanderbilt, who worked for men's rights in nursing by becoming the first male president of the American Nurse's Association and the first man inducted into the ANA's Hall of Fame
What are the Nurse Practice Acts? Acts that are specific to state and cover the common purpose of a nurse, legal obligations of a nurse, and regulate nurses' practice
What are the Standards of Professional Practice? Responsibilities for which the nurse is accountable, especially in the delegation of tasks to less qualified personnel
What are the Standards of Professional Performance? Behaviors for which the nurse is accountable, such as showing compassion, thinking critically, and being knowledgeable
What were some healthcare developments invented during WWII? Changes in anesthetics, blood typing, infection control, and prosthetics
What is evidence-based practice? Clinical decision making based on the best evidence, clinical expertise, and client values
What is the model for changing practice? 1. Assess the need for change
2. Locate the best evidence
3. Critically analyze the evidence
4. Design practice change
5. implement and evaluate the change
6. Integrate and maintain the change in practice
Who demonstrated a successful change of practice? Florence Nightingale
What is quantitative research? Research focused on the systematic collection and statistical analysis of numerical data; often objective
What is qualitative research? Researched focused on the systematic collection and thematic analysis of narrative date; often subjective
What are the three measures of central tendency (mostly used in quantitative research)? 1. Mean: Arithmetic average for a set of scores
2. Median: Middle value in a distribution of scores
3. Mode: Most common occurring value in a set
What are the two measures of variability (mostly used in quantitative research)? 1. Range: Difference between the lowest and highest value for a variable
2. Standard Deviation: Average amount by which a single score deviates from the mean/average score
What are the rights of study participants? 1. The right not to be harmed
2. The right to full disclosure
3. The right to self-determination
4. The right to privacy
What are the two steps of protecting the right of study participants? 1. Institutional Review Board must review and okay a study
2. Client must provide a signature after being fully informed of the study, the possible consequences, and their own subject rights
What is the difference between a theory and a concept? A theory is a system of ideas presumed to explain a given phenomenon, while a concept is an abstract idea which can be subject to different perceptions
What is the difference between a paradigm and a metaparadigm? A paradigm is a pattern of shared understandings about reality as derived from cultural beliefs surrounding ideas such as time and space while a metaparadigm is a concept that can be superimposed on other concepts
What are the four main metaparadigms in nursing? 1. Patients
2. Environment
3. Health
4. Nursing
What is the purpose of nursing theory? To link theory, education, research, and clinical practice
Who is Peplau? Nursing theorist who focused on interpersonal relations between nurses and their patients
Who is Henderson? Nursing theorist who focused on the definition of nursing: a nurse is a healthy individual concerned with an ill individual's wellbeing
Who is Rogers? Nursing theorist who focused on unitary human beings, having dynamic energy fields and circadian rhythms
Who is Orem? Nursing theorist who focused on the general theory of nursing as seen in self-care, self-care deficits, and the nursing system as a whole
Who is King? Nursing theorist who focused on goal attainment
Who is Neuman? Nursing theorist who focused on the systems model of the educational relationship between a nurse and a patient
Who is Roy? Nursing theorist who focused on the adaptation model of the relationship between stress and adaption
Who is Leninger? Nursing theorist who focused on the diversity in cultural care
Who is Watson? Nursing theorist who focused on human caring as a central concept to nursing
Who is Parse? Nursing theorist who focused on the idea of the right to self-determination, that patients have control over their own healthcare choices
What are the categories of laws that affect nursing practice? 1. Constitutional
2. Statutory
3. Criminal
4. Contractual agreements
5. Torts
What are constitutional laws? 1. Due process: Fair treatment through the judicial system
2. Equal protection: Provision of rightful law protection to everyone within jurisdiction
What are Statutory laws? 1. Nurse Practice Acts: Vary in state and take priority over local laws
2. Good Samaritan Acts: Offer protection to people giving reasonable assistance to those who are injured, ill, or in peril
What are contractual agreements? Agreements between the nurse and client or the client and employer
What are torts? Civil wrongs committed against a person or their property and often unintentional
What are examples of unintentional torts? 1. Negligence: Below-standard practice placing another person at risk for harm
2. Malpractice: Negligence of a healthcare worker failing to follow standards of care, use of equipment, communication, documentation, assessment, monitoring, or advocacy
What are examples on intentional torts? 1. Assault and battery: Threat of harm or attempt to harm
2. False imprisonment: Detention w/o legal warrant
3. Invasion of privacy
4. Defamation: Libel (print, pictures), slander (words)
How does a nurse maintain their nursing credentials? 1. State-based licensure
2. Mutual recognition: Allowing for multistate licensure
3. Certification
4. Accreditation
What are the internal nursing standards of care? 1. Job description
2. Education
3. Expertise
4. Institutional policies and procedures
What are the external nursing standards of care? 1. Nurse Practice Acts
2. Professional organizations
3. Nursing specialty-practice organizations
4. Federal organizations and guidelines
Who cannot give consent? 1. Minors under 18
2. Patients who are unconscious
3. Mentally-ill patients judged incompetent by a professional
4. Patients not fully informed or able to understand procedure, possible good outcomes, and possible failures
Who can give consent for those unable to consent themselves? 1. A parent or legal guardian
2. A representative
What is the difference between express consent and implied consent? Express consent comes in the form of a written or oral agreement while implied consent is consent implied by a patient's normal behavior which indicated agreement even when they are unable to consent at the moment
What are the three major elements of informed consent? (How, who, what) 1. Consent must be given voluntarily
2. Consent must be given by a competent individual
3. Enough information must be given to individual before consent is given
What is one way to ensure a patient understands the diagnosis, procedure, possible risks, purpose of treatment, intended benefits, and possible alternatives before giving consent? Ask them to state the diagnosis, procedure, treatment, risks, intended benefit, and possible alternatives in their own words
What does an RN need to know before delegation of tasks? 1. They are responsible for all tasks, even once delegated
2. Skill level of all assistive personnel
3. Scope of practice of all assistive personnel
4. Employer's guidelines regarding delegation
What is the Americans with Disabilities Act? It prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability and its purpose is to provide a national mandate, enforceable standards, and ensure government role in enforcing said standards
What are the Good Samaritan Acts? They protect health care providers from claims of malpractice when not attempting to provide assistance at an emergency scene
What are the guidelines of the Good Samaritan Acts? 1. Limit actions to first aid
2. Do not perform actions unless trained
3. Offer assistance, not insistence
4. Call for additional help
5. Don't leave scene until injured person leaves or a qualified person takes over
6. Do not accept compensation
What are controlled substances? Government-regulated substances such as narcotics that lead to criminal penalty when misused
What qualities result in an impaired nurse? 1. Chemical dependency on drugs
2. Alcoholism
3. Mental illness
What are Peer Assistance Programs for nurses? Programs such as counseling, support groups, and periodic progress reports to ensure healing of an impaired nurse
What is sexual harassment? The violation of individual rights from either a male or female, regardless of sexual orientation
Nurse's rights regarding abortion? 1. Abortion is legal in the early stages of pregnancy, according to Roe v. Wade
2. Nurses can refuse to participate in an abortion without retaliation or discrimination
What is the nurse's role in patient death and related issues? 1. Regional laws and healthcare institutions prescribe legal issues
2. Nurses are expected to provide appropriate care and understanding to patients facing death
What are the two types of advanced health care directives? Living Will: Provides instructions about medical treatments the client wishes to refuse in the event they are unable to make the decision
Health Care Proxy: Notarized statement appointing another person to manage healthcare treatments for patient
What are nurses required to do in regards to advanced health care directives? 1. Recognize advanced directives
2. Ask clients if they have advanced directives
3. Provide educational material about advanced directives
What is a nurse's obligation concerning Do-Not-Resusitate (DNR) patients? 1. Always respect their wishes
2. Discuss DNR with the patient, family, designated decision-maker, and healthcare team
3. Clearly document, review, and update DNR
4. Never withdrawal other care
What is HIPAA? The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996
Security and privacy rules are overseen by which agency? HIPAA
What are the effects of HIPAA? 1. Names cannot be posted on room door
2. Charts kept in secure location
3. Printed copies of protected health information never left unattended
4. Limited access to protected health information
What are the effects of HIPAA (cont.)? 5. Password access is needed to access client's electronic information
6. A notice informing clients of privacy rights and rights to health information should be posted or provided
7. Voice levels lowered to minimize disclosure of information
What are incident reports? Agency records of an incident, filed according to agency policy, which allow personnel to access all facts, contribute to statistical data about incidents, and help prevent future incidents
What information should be included on incident reports? 1. ID of patient by name, initials, hospital ID number
2. Date, time, place of incident
3. Description of incident facts
4. Account and quotes from patient
5. ID of all witnesses
6. ID of all equipment by number
7. Medication by name and dosage
What are ways to minimize the chance of liability? 1. Function within the scope of education, job description, and nurse practice acts
2. Follow procedures and policies
3. Build and maintain good rapport
4. Always check the client’s identity
5. Observe and monitor
What are ways to minimize the chance of liability (pt. 2)? 6. Promptly and accurately document all assessments and care
7. Be alert when implementing nursing interventions
8. Perform procedures correctly and appropriately
9. Observe 6 Rights of nursing
10. Delegate appropriately
What are the 6 rights of nursing? 1. Right patient
2. Right medication
3. Right dose
4. Right time
5. Right route
6. Right documentation
What are ways to minimize the chance of liability (pt. 3)? 11. Protect clients from injury
12. Report all incidents
13. Always check any order that is questioned
14. Know own strengths and weaknesses
15, Maintain clinical competence
Why should a nurse always carry professional liability insurance? 1. Increase in numbers of malpractice lawsuits
2. Covers up to face value of policy
What are the factors that influence moral decisions? 1. Cognitive development in critical thinking
2. Personal values
3. Moral framework
4. Code of ethics
What are the two types of value transmission? 1. Personal: Give a sense of individuality and is derived from societal and individual experiences
2. Professional: Derived from the code of ethics, nursing experience, and teachers
What are the 5 essential values for a nurse? 1. Altruism: concern with others' wellbeing
2. Autonomy: Allow patients right of self-determination
3. Human dignity: Respect for peoples' inherent worth
4. Integrity: Acting with code of ethics
5. Social justice: Treat all people as equal
What are the 6 steps to clarifying patient values? 1. List alternatives
2. Examine possible consequences
3. Allow to choose freely
4. Ask patient's feeling about choice
5. Affirm choice
6. Act on choice
7. Act with a pattern
What should you never do when clarifying patient values? Give your own opinion
What are the obligations for nurses in ethical decision-making? 1. Client wellbeing
2. Client's need for autonomy
3. Family's responsibility
4. Enhance family support system
5. Carry our hospital policy
6. Protect other clients' wellbeing
7. Protect nurse's standard of care
What are ways of enhancing ethical decision making? 1. Be aware of personal values
2. Learn about ethical issues in nursing though continuing education
3. Respect others' opinions
4. Participate in ethic rounds
5. Serve on institutional ethic committees
6. Strive for collaborative practice
How is ethical behavior contextual? A decision that may be ethical in one situation is not necessarily ethical in another situation
Some principles of ethics are advocacy, responsibility, accountability, and confidentiality. Give a short summary of these: 1. Advocacy: Support of client's wellness and personal rights
2. Responsibility: Willingness to respect obligations
3. Accountability: Ability to answer for one's own actions
4. Confidentiality: Protection of privacy while maintaining high quality care
What should a nurse do if a patient chooses not to receive surgery to remedy significant blockages in coronary arteries? Respect his autonomy
Offering pain medication to a patient recovering from surgery is an example of what ethical principle? Benevolence
All patients waiting for organ transplants must meet the same qualifications. This aspect of care delivery follows which ethical principle? Justice
A nurse questions a medication prescription as too extreme in light of their patient's age and instability. Which ethical principle is she displaying? Nonmaleficence
A nurse on a medical-surgical unit demonstrates signs of chemical impairment. What kind of issue is this? Legal
A nurse overhears another nurse telling an older adult that she will use restraints if he refuses to wear restraints. Is this an ethical dilemma? No, the patient has the right to autonomy
A family has conflicting feelings about the initiation of an enteral tube for their terminally-ill father. Is this an ethical issue? Yes
A terminally-ill patient hesitates to name her spouse on her power of attorney form. What kind of issue is this? Legal
An AP reprimands a client for using a urinal incorrectly and threatens to put a diaper on him unless he can use it successfully. What kind of tort is this? Assault
A competent client plans to leave the hospital against doctor's orders and his nurse prepared to administer a PRN sedative against orders. What type of tort is this? False imprisonment
What type of surgery may a client write out before surgery to determine what happens after surgery? Advanced directive
A patient is undergoing surgery. What actions does the nurse need to take regarding informed consent? They need to witness the client signing the form, make sure the surgeon has obtained the consent, and make sure the client understands the procedure
What action should a nurse take if she finds another nurse asleep on the job, unable to focus, or drowsy? Inform the nurse manager immediately to ensure nurse ability and patient safety
What is the legal record of care? The medical record/chart
What are some types of documentation formats? Flow charts, narrative documentation, charting by exception, problem-oriented medical records, electronic health records
What information should be present in a change-of-shift report? Significant information about patient's health problems from an objective point of view and recent changes in medications, treatments, procedures, and the discharge plan
According to HIPAA, can a nurse photocopy patient information to send to another another facility or provider? Yes, but only in that circumstance
According to HIPAA, how can a family member receive information about a patient? That family member must be authorized by the patient and must be able to provide a code to prove authorization
Can a patient receive a copy of their medical records? Yes
Which of these require an incident report? Medication error, needle sticks, conflict with provider and nursing staff, omission of prescription Medication error, needle sticks, omission of prescription
What are the five steps of the nursing process? ADPIE
1. Assessment
2. Diagnosis
3. Planning
4. Implementation
5. Evaluation
In the nursing process, what is assessment? Collecting, organizing, and documenting data such as files, medical history, vital signs, test results, and quotes from patients in order to establish a database about the patient's response to health concerns
In the nursing process, what is diagnosis? Analyzes all collected data in order to identify patient strengths, health problems that can be prevented or resolved, and develop a list of collaborative problems
In the nursing process, what is planning? Determining how to prevent, reduce, or resolve identified priority patient problems, how to support patient strengths, how to implement nursing interventions based on an individualized, specific care plan that should be discussed with the patient
In the nursing process, what is implementation? Carrying out and documenting planned nursing interventions to assist the patient to meet desired goals, promote wellness, prevent illness and disease, restore health, and facilitate coping
In the nursing process, what is evaluation? Measuring the degree to which goals have been achieved, identifying the factors that have influenced this achievement (or lack thereof), and to determine whether to continue, modify, or terminate the plan of care
What is an initial assessment? An assessment performed within a specific time period that establishes a complete database
What is a problem-focused assessment? Assesses an ongoing process integrated with care to determine the status of an existing problem
What is an emergency assessment? An assessment performed during physiological or psychological crises that identifies life-threating and new or overlooked problems
What is a time-lapsed assessment? An assessment that occurs several month after the initial assessment and compares the patient's current status to the baseline
What are the two types of data? Subjective (covert) and objective (overt) data
What are some examples of subjective data? Sensations, feelings, values, attitudes, and perceptions that only immediately affect and can be described by the patient
What are some examples of objective data? Things that can be seen, heard, felt, or smelled by an observer through a physical examination and then measured against an accepted standard to find abnormalities
Which organization oversees electronic transfer of information among organizations? HIPAA
Which organization oversees standardized numbers for identifying providers, employers, and health plans? HIPAA
What should happen immediately after allegations of sexual misconduct? They must be reported according to the rules of the institution
How does healthcare reform influence nursing practice? The Affordable Care Act shifted focus from primary to preventative care and the treatment of chronic conditions
How do changes in the quality and safety of healthcare influence nursing practice? Introduced six core properties:
1. Patient-centered care
2. Teamwork
3. Evidence-based practice
4. Quality improvement
5. Safety
6. Informatics
How did changes in consumer demands influence nursing practice? People are better educated about illness and have shifted to a belief that health is a right, not a privilege
How did changes in family structure influence nursing practice? More families need support centers and help financially and emotionally with raising single-parent families
How did changes in science and technology influence nursing practice? New medicines and equipment are able to cure disease and prolong lifespan, but nurses must learn new terminology and operations
How do changes in information, telehealth, and telenursing influence nursing practice? More information is available electronically, so nurses need to look for accurate information online
How do changes in legislation influence nursing practice? Nurses must keep track of changing laws and regulations so as to not perform out of their scope
How does Demography influence nursing practice? Increased elderly adults calls for higher nursing demands, there's a shift in rural-urban setting which calls for nurses for pollution-related issues, and some populations struggle more with issues such as smoking
How does the current nursing shortage influence nursing practice? There's not enough supply and a lot of demand, but it's not uniform cross-country
What is the primary data source? Information gathered from the patient
What are some secondary data sources? What should you always do when collecting this type of data? Information gathered from the patient's support persons, records, literature, and healthcare professionals. Ensure accuracy and completeness
In data collection, what's the difference between physical observations and physical examinations? Physical observations include subjective data such as sights, smells, sounds, and touch. Physical examinations include objective data such as blood pressure, pulse, heart, lung, and bowel sounds, and skin temperature and moisture
What is the directive approach to patient interviews? Interviews are established with a purpose and controlled by a nurse asking closed-ended questions
What is the Nondirective approach to patient interviews? Interviews are established to build a relationship with the patient and the patient controls the purpose, subject matter, and pacing of the conversation
I'll bet you know what a leading question is, right? You know that you shouldn't use them and why, don't you? A leading question doesn't give the patient an option to say "no" and should be avoided because they invalidate data
You need to perform an interview with a patient. When should the interview be performed? It should be performed when the patient is not in pain or distracted
You need to perform an interview with a patient. Where should the interview be performed? Somewhere private, where the patient feels safe and comfortable
You need to perform an interview with a patient. What should your posture and distance from the patient be? You should pull up a chair 3-4 feet away from them, so as to not crowd their space or seem condescending and allow them to relax
You need to perform an interview with a patient. What sort of language should you use? Don't use medical terminology, be simple and concise and make sure that the patient understands you. Use a translator in case of language differences
What happens if you don't document a nursing action? Legally, it was not performed
What should you always remember about Nursing Diagnoses? You must use a NANDA-approved label. Seriously. Do it.
What is NANDA? The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association
What is a 3 part nursing diagnosis? 1. Diagnosis label from NANDA list
2. Etiology
3. Evidence of causation
What is an Actual Nursing Diagnosis? A nursing diagnosis in which problems are present at the time of assessment and are based on associated signs and symptoms
What are Risk or Possible Nursing Diagnoses? Risk diagnoses include problems that do not exist, but rather, risk factors such as skin breakdown and falls while possible nursing diagnoses include incomplete evidence
What is a Wellness Nursing Diagnosis? A nursing diagnosis that is educational and preventative for a well patient
What is a Syndrome Nursing Diagnosis? Often associated with other diagnoses and often based on mental health issues
What is the difference between Medical and Nursing Diagnoses? 1. Nursing Dx focuses on response, while Medical Dx focuses on specific conditions and disease processes
2. Medical Dxs do not change, but Nursing Dxs can change from shift-shift or day-day
3. Client-specific, not disease-specific
What is a two-part Nursing Diagnosis? A diagnosis that only includes the problem and the etiology
What is one-part Nursing Diagnosis? A diagnosis that only includes wellness of syndrome
Who has access to patient records? Those with direct contact with the patient only
Are you able to look up patients' records in the hospital if they're not your patient? No, that's v illegal
A patient is looking at their medical record and requests to take it home, what should you do? Give them a copy because they have a right to it, but file the original medical record because it is property of the institution
How should a nurse ensure patient confidentiality when working with computerized records? 1. Each nurse has a password
2. Never leave computer unattended
3. Don't leave client info displayed
4. Shred all unneeded worksheets
5. Know facility policy for correcting an entry error
6. Follow agency procedures for documenting material
What are some purposes of client records? 1. Communication
2. Planning client care
3. Auditing health agencies
4. Research data w no patient identifying factors
5. Reimbursement
6. Legal documentation
7. Health care analysis to help an agency calculate costs and identify needs
What are source-oriented patient records? Traditional records that include separate sections for each discipline to make notes in about a particular health deficit, including narrative charting for nurse's notes
What is a problem-oriented patient record? Data arranged according to patient problems and contributed to by a health team which makes it easy to track the status of a certain problem and encourages collaboration
What is DAR charting? Data, Action, and Response charting which gives a holistic perspective of a patient, their needs, and responses
What is CBE charting? Charting by Exception, which is mostly just filling out boxes to determine patient's needs and exceptions to standards described in nurse's notes
What is the best legal protection in court? Documentation
What is a change of shift report? It provides basic identifying information, reason for admission, diagnoses, surgeries, therapies and diagnostic tests for new patients, include significant changes, and report on clients who have been transferred or discharged
What should be included in a telephone report? 1. Date, time, name, and credentials of person giving info
2. Record received info and read it back for accuracy
3. Sign notation
What should be included when giving a telephone report? 1. Name and relationship to client
2. Date, military time, content of call, to whom the report was given
3. Prepare all info ahead of time
What should you do when receiving a voicemail order? Throw that shit in the trash where it belongs
What should you do when receiving a telephone order? (TO) 1. Know policies on who can receive phone orders
2. Ask prescriber to be clear and spell out the medication
3. Question drug, dosage, or changes if unsure
4. Write order down, read it back to prescriber
5. Order on physician's order sheet with date
What is a care plan conference? A meeting to discuss a client case with members of several difference disciplines
ac before meals
ad lib as desired
AKA above the knee amputation
amb ambulatory
bid twice daily
BKA below the knee amputation
BM bowel movement
BP, B/P blood pressure
BRP bathroom privileges
bsc, BSC bedside commode
c with
c/o complains of
CA cancer
CAD coronary artery disease
CAL chronic airflow limitation
CBC complete blood count
CBR complete bed rest
CHF congestive heart failure
COPD chronic obstructive lung disease
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
DAR data, action, response
DAT diet as tolerated
DM diabetes mellitus
DNR do not resuscitate
drsg, dsg dressing
DX, Dx diagnosis
ECG, EKG electrocardiogram
FX, fx fracture
GI gastrointestinal
gtt(s) drop(s)
GU genital urinary
H&H hemoglobin and hematocrit
h, hr hour
H2O water
Hct hematocrit
Hgb hemoglibin
HTN hypertension
I & O Intake and output
ID intradermal
IDDM insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
IM intramuscular
IV intravenous
IVP intravenous push
IVPB intravenous piggyback
MI myocardial ischemia (heart attack)
NC nasal cannula
NG naso-gastric
NIDDM non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
NKA no known allergies
NKDA no known drug allergies
NPO nothing by mouth
O2 oxygen
OA osteoarthritis
OOB out of bed
pc after meals
PEG percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy
po, PO by mouth
PRN, prn when necessary
q every
QA quality assurance
qid four times a day
QSEN quality and safety education for nurses
RA rheumatoid arthritis
s without
SBAR situation, background, assessment, recommendation
SL sublingual
subcut subcutaneously
SX, sx symptoms
THR total hip replacement
tid three times per day
TKR total knee replacement
TPR temperature, pulse, respiration
TX, tx treatment
VS, vs vital signs
WNL within normal limits