Kaplan – Cardio 3 Chronic Stable Angina

Question Answer
This type of angina is predictable and follows some sort of physical exertion or psychological stress. Chronic unstable angina
ECG changes seen with stable angina are __ _____ ________ or ____ _________ in leads correlating with area of heart experiencing decreased myocardial oxygen supply. T wave inversion, ST depression
Stable angina lasts ____ – ____ minutes and is relieved by _________ and ______. 5-20 minutes, nitrates, rest
Most people with stable angina describe the pain as ___________, _____________, ____________, ___________ or ___________________________________ pressure, indigestion, heaviness, achy feeling across chest
Pain associated with stable angina may located in _______, _____, _____, ___________, _____ or ___________ region. chest, jaw, arms, substernal, back, epigastric
Accompanying symptoms of stable angina include ________, __________, ____ and _____________. nausea, dizziness, SOB, diaphoresis
Angina occurs as a result of the myocardium lacking blood supply due to CAD, primarily ________________, but may also be related to _________ or __________. atherosclerosis, thrombus, vasospasm
_______ is the most prominent risk factor associated with chronic stable angina pectoris. CAD
Serum cardiac biomarkers are ___________ in stable angina. normal
The goal a treatment in stable angina is to increase myocardial oxygen supply using ________ and decrease demand using ________, _____ and _____ ___________. nitrates, nitrates, CCBs, beta blockers
Lifestyle modification teaching should include Smoking cessation, diabetic education, weight control, stress/anxiety reduction, promotion of a non-sedentary lifestyle, proper diet, BP and cholesterol control
Type of stable angina that is associated with illicit drug use is called __________ angina and is caused by coronary __________. Prinzmetal's, vasospasms
Daily anti-platelet agents may be prescribed for stable angina, with ____ being the first-line agent, unless patient has a recent ____ or ______ placement, in which case _______ is recommended ASA 81 mg, MI, stent, Plavix
Patients with stable angina should be educated on use of ______________ (medication). nitroglycerin
Surgical intervention for stable angina may include _____________, ______ or ______. angioplasty, PCI's, CABG

CH 1 VOCAB

Term Definition
hola hello,hi
buenos dias good morning
Buenos tardes good afternoon
Buenos noches good night
Senor/Sr./don Mr, / Sir
Senorita/Senora Miss/ Mrs.
con permissio pardon me/ excuse me
de nada you're welcome
Lo siento I'm sorry
(muchas) gracias thank you
No hay de que. you're welcome
perdon pardon me
por favor please
?de donde es usted? where are you from?
?de donde eres? where are you from?
soy de . . . I'm from
ser to be
Adios good bye
Nos vemos see you
Hasta luego see you later
Hasta la vista see you later
Hasta pronto see you soon
Hasta manana See you tomorrow
Saludos a. . . Greetings to
chau Bye
?como esta usted? how are you ?
?como estas? How are you?
?Que hay de nuevo? What's new?
?Que pasa? what's up
?Que tal? How are you?
muy bien gracias. very well thanks
Nada Nothing
No muy bien Not very well
regular fine
?cuanto how much?
?de quien whose?
?de quienes whose?
hay there are
?Como se llama usted What is your name
?Como te llamas? What is your name
me llamo. . . my name is . . .
?Y usted? And you
Mucho gusto Pleased to meet you
El gusto es mio the pleasure is mine.
Encantado. pleasure is mine.
Igualmente Likewise
Y tu? And you?
Te presento a. . . I would like to meet you.
Argentina Argentina
canada canada
Coasta Rica Coasta Rica
cuba cuba
Ecuador Ecuador
el autobus bus
Ia capital capital city
el chico boy
la chica geirl
la computadora computer
la comunidad community
conductor driver
la converersacion conversation
la cosa thing
el cuademo note book
el dia day
el diario diary
el diccionario dictionary
la escuela school
el estuudiante student
la foto photograph
el hombre man
el joven young persion
el lapiz pencil
la leccion lesson
la maleta suitcase
la mano hand
el mapa map
la mujer woman
la nacionailidad nationonality
el numero number
el pais country
la palabra word
el pasajero passenger
el problema problem
la profesor teacher
el programa program
el turista tourist
el video video

Chapter 47 anti fungal drugs

Term Definition
Antimetabolite drug that either is a receptor antagonist or resembles a normal human metabolite and interferes with its function in the body. competing for enzyme
dermatophytes several fungi that are often found in soil and infect the skin, nails, or hair of humans
ergosterol the main sterol in fungal membranes
fungi group of eukaryotic microorganisms that require an external carbon source and that form a plant structure known as a thallus. consist of yeast and mould
moulnds multicellular fungi characterized by long. branching filaments called hyper, which entwine to form a complex branched structure as mycelium
mycosis generally any fungal infection
pathological fungi fungi that causes mycoses
sterols substance in the cell membranes of fungi which polyene anti fungal drugs bind
yeasts single celled fungi that reproduce by budding
some fungi are a part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestines, and vagina
fungi can be ingested orally, can grow on or in there skin, hair, or nails and if the fungal spores are airborne can be inhaled
dermatophytes fungi that cause integumentary infections are known as, called dermatomycoses
the most sever systemic fungal infections generally affect people whose host immune defences are compromised
topical anti fungal drugs are the most commonly used drugs in this class, and are often administered without prescription for the treatment of dermatomycoses, as well as oral
Flucytosine (5 fluorocytosine) it is an antimetabolite which is a drug that disrupts crucial cellular metabolic pathways of the fungal cell, and interferes with DNA synthesis one in cell
Griseofulvin works by preventing the susceptible fungi from reproducing. Inhibits fungal mitosis
the main sterol in fungal membranes is ergosterol
human cells have cholesterol instead of ergosterol
drug of choice for treatment of many severe systemic fungal infections amphotericin B
Amphotericin B is effective against a wide range of fungi and is used to treat aspergillosis, blastomycosis, candidiasis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis ..
imidazole and triazoles act as fungistatic, and fungicidal drugs – most effective by combatting rapidly growing fungi by inhibiting the cytochrome P450 enzyme system
coadministering two drugs broken down by the cytochrome P450 system causes them to compete for a limited number of enzymes and one of the drugs ends up accumulating in the body
contraindications for anti fungal drugs drug allergy, liver failure, kidney failure, and porphyria are most common
itraconazole should not be used to treat onychomycoses in patients with severe heart problems
voriconazole can cause fetal harm in pregnant women
single celled fungi that reproduce by budding yeast
one of the major chemical groups of antufungal drugs; includes amphotericin B and nystatin Polyenes
a very large diverse group of eukaryotic thallus forming microorganisms that require an external carbon source fungi
another of the major groups of anti fungal drugs includes ketoconazole Imidazoles
a term for a fungal infection of the moth thrush
one of the older anti fungal drugs that acts by preventing susceptible fungi from reproducing griseofulvin
the drug of choice for many sever antifungal infections, also the oldest antifungal drug amphotericin B (Fungizone)
the an anti fungal drug commonly used for candidate diaper rash nystatin
an infection caused by fungi mycosis
multicellular fungi characterized by long branching filament called hyphae which entwine to form a mycelium moulds
polyenes amphotericin B and nystatin act by binding to sterols in the cell membranes of fungi
Imidazoles and triazoles ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole – act as funistatic or fungicidal – act by inhibiting fungal cell P450 enzyme
echinocandins caspofungin, anidulafungin sodium, and mucafungin – act by preventing synthesis of glucans, essential components of fungal cell walls.
fluconazole increases effect of oral anticoagulants
caspofungin (Cancidas) is used to treat severe aspergillum infection in patients who are intolerant of amor refractory to other meds
4 types of mycotic infections systemic, cutaneous, subcutaneous and superficial

PSYCH 3310 Ch. 3

Questionlack Answer
Couvade Syndrome Medieval Basque custom, during labor father of child took bed, complained of labor pains, attended to same way as women during delivery. Today, cases where father could feel similar things that the mother does.
Parturition Process of uterine contractions, cervical flexibility, and other changes bringing on labor, 2 weeks before delivery
Cesarean Delivery surgically removing baby from uterus through abdomen (30% of births in US)
Natural/prepared delivery method to prepare mother, reduce pain and anxiety associated with childbirth
Lamaze mother learned to substitute other responses for pain
Medicated delivery dull or eliminate pain of childbirth, 60% choose pain relief during labor
Neonatal Period first 4 weeks of life, dependency in utero to existence outside uterus
Neonate newborn baby up to 4 weeks
Anoxia lack of oxygen, may result in brain damage
Neonatal Jaundice caused by immature liver, appears yellow
Apgar Scale standard measure of status at 1 and mintues. A – appearance/color. P – pulse/heart rate. G – Grimace/ reflex. A – Activity/muscle tone. R – respiration/ breathing
Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral asses neonate's response to environment, up to 2 months
Assessment motor skills, relexes, state changes, attention, and interactive
State of Arousal degree of alertness in infant
post maturity fetus not born 2 weeks after due date
Birth Trauma injury sustained at birth, ex. infections, mechanical difficulties, damage in tissue or organs.
Low birth weight weigh less than 5 1/2 pounds at birth
Very low birth weight less than 3 lbs. 5 ounces at birth
Extremely low birth weight less than 2 lbs. 3 ounces
Pre-term born before 37th week of pregnancy
Small for gestational age full term, but weighs less than 90% of babies of same gestational age
Isolette newborn in controlled environment
Kangaroo Care skin to skin contact between low birth weight infant and caregiver
Stillbirth baby dies after 23 – 24 weeks of gestation
Infant Mortality Rate proportion of babies born alive who die within first year of life
SIDS Sudden infant death syndrome,, under 1 year, no one cause, common in boys, preterm, and born in winter
Cephalocaudal Growth head to tail and top to bottom
Proximodistal Growth inside to outside and near to far
Gross motor skills movement involving large muscles
Fine motor skills Movements involving smaller more precise movements
Head-sparing biological mechanism that protects brain when malnutrition disrupts body growth
Transient Exuberance early dendrite growth, rapid and temporary
Experience Expectant over-produced neurons in expectation growth
Experience Dependent Dendrite growth in response to rich environment
Reflex behavior responses do not require learning, spontaneous or usual activity, responses to certain actions.
Reflexes help identify baby's normal brain and nerve activity, need these to ensure normal neurological functioning
Rooting Reflex baby's mouth touched will turn head and open mouth and root in direction of stroking
Sucking relfex roof of mouth touched baby will begin to suck
Moro reflex response to sudden lose of support (6 months)
Tonic Neck Reflex Baby makes fencing position (6-7 months)
Grasp Reflex Baby's man causes to close fingers in grasp (1 -2 months)
Babinski Reflex foot firmly stroked, toes spread apart (2 years)
Step Relex feet placed on solid object will look like walking
Rhythmic motor behavior continuous repetition of motor skill, once "mastered" behavior will stop
System of action through development of motor skills, child acquires increasingly complex behavior
Visual Cliff experimental technique developed to give illusion of depth for those who have the ability
Behaviorist approach understanding how people respond in learning situations
Classical conditioning learning based on associations.
operant conditioning learning how behavior is controlled by consequences, reinforcement and punishment
Psychometric approach instruments designed to test intelligence at various stages
Piagetian approach development in stages. assess quality of functioning at each stage
intelligent behavior goal-oriented and adaptive to circumstances and conditions of life
Schemes how information is organized
assimilation new information/experiences fit into existing schemes
accommodation when new information does not fit existing scheme, changes in scheme or new scheme created
disequilibrium new information does not make sense, wants to find solution
equilibrium state of cognitive harmony, current information fits person's mindset
sensorimotor stage age 0 to 2, senses and motor skills
Circular reactions learn to reproduce behaviors when produce effect
primary circular reactions infants repeat pleasurable behaviors which at first may have occurred without intent
tertiary circular reactions more variations of activities, trial and error
Little scientists part of tertiary circular reactions
representational ability ability to store mental images for objects and experiences. allows to try things out in mind. advancement over trial and error
object permanence baby understands objects continue to exist when hidden
deferred imitation imitating behavior after time has elapsed since initial behavior was seen
dual representation hypothesis ability to understand and mentally represent both picture and object is represents
scale error child makes serious attempt to perform impossible task because of extreme size difference between themselves and object.
information processing approach focus on perception, learning, memory, and problem solving
infantile amnesia inability to remember events prior to age 3
Habituation longer something is present it becomes familiar
dis-habituation increase in responding after new stimulus is presented
violation of expectiations observation of dis-habituation when situation conflicts with experience , new stimulus is surprising, expectation is already set
joint attention babies look or point in same direction as adult with whom interacting (1 year)
language communication system based on word, grammar, and cognitive development
literacy
cooing vowels, ooh and ahh, 6 to 8 weeks
babbling da da ba ba, 6 to 10 months
gestures movement of body part to convey meaning
conventional social gestures movements well established purpose, waving
representational gestures hand/body movement or facial expression communicate specific meaning
symbolic gestures meaning in movemetns
linguistic speech communication with words, 10 to 14 months
holophrase simple syllables or 1 word sentences
language explosion rapid gains in vocabulary between 16 to 24 months
telegraphic speech onset of 2 word combination emerges
mean length of utterance average number of meaningful sound combinations
grammar all devices by which words communicate meaning
receptive language understand language, passive
expressive language expression through language, active
language acquisition device 1. language is taught 2. social interaction 3. infants teach themselves
child- directed speech form of speech used when talking with babies

Scientific Method

Term Definition
Scientific Method Tools Anything that helps you observe, research, measure, experiment, or collect data
Scientific Method Use this to answer a question that can be tested
Thermometer The development of this made it possible to measure a persons body temperature.
Telescope The invention of this allowed people to see things far away on earth and other planets.
Stethoscope This allows doctors to listen to patients hearts.
Gravity Understanding ____________ helped scientists develop a satellite that orbits the earth.
Lenses Scientist that invented microscopes, telescopes, and binoculars understood how _____________ work.
Plant Cells _________________ have chloroplasts and cell walls and animal cells do not.
Nucleus The ______________ is the control center of the cell because it contains chromosomes that have all the genetic information.
Nuclear The cell membrane helps protect the cell and the _______________ membrane protects the nucleus.
Photosynthesis A process plants use to make food and the chloroplasts does this job.
Mitochondria This is the powerhouse of the cell, and releases energy from food.
Cytoplasm A gel like substance that allows organelles to move throughout the cell.
Vacuoles These store food water and chemicals for the cell.
Producers Plants, algae, and certain bacteria are:
Glucose and Oxygen Plants take in carbon dioxide and water and energy from the sun and produce _________________.
Photosynthesis Mosses and algea are plants so they perform __________________
to make food.
Sun The original source of energy is the ________________, and plants get their energy from it.
Herbivores, Carnivores, Omnivores These consumers eat other organisms for energy.
Decomposers These get energy by consuming and breaking down dead organisms.
Predators These hunt and eat prey.
Food chain In this, the arrow always points toward the organism that is consuming the energy.
Symbosis The interaction between living things in the ecosystem.
Mutualism Relationship in which both organisms benefit.
Parasitism Relationship in which one organism benefits and the host is harmed.
Commenalism Relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected.
Genes These determine the traits a living thing is born with.

AP English Terms 4

Question Answer
Point of View In literature, the perspective from which a story is told. There are two general divisions: First person and third person
Personification A figure of speech in which the author presents or describes concepts, animals, or inanimate objects by endowing them with human attributes or emotions. Used to make thee abstractions, animals, or objects appear more vivid to the reader.
Prose One of the major divisions of genre, refers to fiction and nonfiction, including all its forms. The printer determines the length of the line; the poet determines the length of the line.
Parody A work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule.
Rhetoric This term describes the principles governing the art of writing effectively, eloquently, and persuasively.
Sarcasm Involves bitter caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule something.
Periodic Sentence A sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end. This independent clause is preceded by a phrase or clause that cannot stand alone.
Pedantic An adjective that describes words, phrases or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic, or bookish
Repetition The duplication, either exact, or approximate, of any element of language, such as sound, word, phrase, clause, sentence, or grammatical pattern.
Rhetorical Modes This flexible term describes the variety, the conventions, and the purposes of the major kinds of writing. The four most common types are exposition, argumentation, description, and narration.
Theme The central idea or message of a work, the insight it offers to life. Usually is unstated in fictional works, but in nonfiction, it may be directly stated, especially in expository or arguementative writing.
Tone Similar to mood, describes the author's attitude toward his material, the audience, or both. Is easier to determine in spoken language than written language.
Syntax The way an author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences. Is similar to diction.
Wit In modern usage intellectually amusing language that surprises and delights. This kind of statement is humorous, while suggesting the speaker's verbal power in creating ingenious and perceptive remarks.
Symbol Anything that represents itself and stands for something else. Usually is something concrete usually and object, action, character. or scene, that represents something more abstract.
Style (1) An evaluation of the sum of the choices an author makes in blending diction, syntax, figurative language, and other literary devices. (2) Classification of authors to a group and comparison of an author to similar authors.
Understatement The ironic minimizing of fact, presents something as less significant than it is. The effect can frequently be humorous and emphatic. Is the opposite of a hyperbole.
Theis In expository writing, this statement is a sentence or group of sentences that directly expresses the author's opinion, purpose meaning, or position.
Satire A work that targets human vices and follies or social institutions and conventions for a reform or ridicule.
Semantics The branch of linguistics that studies the meaning of words, their historical and psychological development, their connotations, and their relations to one another.
Syllogism From the Greek for "reckoning together" this is a deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises that inevitably lead to a sound conclusion.
Transition A word or phrase that links different ideas. Used especially in expository and arguementative writing, this term effectively signal a shift from one idea to another.

Las Profesiones (2)

Question Answer
el carpintero carpenter
la peluquera hair dresser
el barbero barber
el mecanico mechanic
el payaso clown
el mesero waiter
el pintor painter
el cocinero chef
el bombero firefighter
el veterinario veterinarian
el medico doctor
el cirujano surgeon
el maestro teacher
el ingeniero engineer
el arquitecto architect
el pescador fisherman
el soldado soldier
el vaquero cowboy
el cartero mailman
el conductor de camion truck driver
el electricista electrician
el piloto pilot
el aeromozo flight attendant
la costurera seamstress
el periodista journalist
el fotografo photographer
la interprete interpreter
poseer to possess
requerir to require
reparar el coche to repair the car

Unidad 1 Lesson 1

Term Definition
la agencia de viajes travel agency
el (la) agente de viajes travel agent
confirmar el vuelo to confirm a flight
hacer la maleta to pack a suitcase
hacer un viaje to take a trip
ir de vacaciones to go on vacation
llamar a to call someone (by phone)
viajar to travel
el boleto ticket
el boleto de ida y vuelta roundtrip ticket
el equipaje luggage
la identificacion identification
el itinerario itinerary
la maleta suitcase
el pasaporte passport
la tarjeta de embarque boarding pass
el traje de bano bathing suit
Por favor, ?donde queda…? Can you please tell me where . . . is?
la estacion de tren train station
la oficina de turismo tourist office
la parada de autobus bus stop
tomar un taxi to take a taxi
abordar to board
el aeropuerto airport
el (la) auxiliar de vuelo flight attendant
facturar el equipaje to check one’s luggage
hacer cola to get in line
la pantalla monitor; screen
el (la) pasajero(a) passenger
pasar por seguridad to go through security
la salida departure
el vuelo flight
la llegada arrival
pasar por la aduana to go through customs
el reclamo de equipaje baggage claim

Assessment Speech Audiometry

Question Answer
what is the purpose of speech threshold testing to detect an individuals threshold of hearing for speech and it validates the pure-tones
what are the types of threshold testing SDT/SAT and SRT
threshold where speech can be detected 50% of the time but does not require the sound to be understood SDT
when looking at an audiogram how do you identify the SDT it is always the lowest level that is heard (the best dB)
what is the procedure used to test SDT down 10 up 5
threshold where speech can be recognized 50% of the time SRT
what is the stimuli used to find SRT spondees
SRT is usually equal to what 3 f PTA (500 1k, 2k)
how is the 2f PTA found 500 and 1k
about how many dB poorer is the SRT generally than the SDT 8-9 dB
T or F either live voice or recorded stimuli can be used for SRT true, recorded is preferred
what are some advantages and disadvantages of recorded stimuli A) consistent (intensity and speech patterns) D) limits flexibility (words and rate)
what are advantages and disadvantages of live voice stimuli A) more flexible and enjoyable to listen to D) less control and not as consistent between words and patients
what is the listener response for SDT nonverbal, handraise
what is the listener response for SRT repetition, alternates are okay if needed such as pointing form a list of pictures or eye gaze
T of F when conducting SRT we should not encourage our examinee to guess false
how is familiarization done for SRT the listener should be read the list of words and they should repeat them all back
T of F familiarization should not be skipped but often is in the real world setting true
what is a method used to find the SRT recommended by ASHA and why is it reliable descending method is reliable because it is based off of math and there is no guessing (2 dB or 5 dB processes)
what are the 2 phases used in the descending/ascending methods preliminary and test phases
what is the alternate procedure provided by AHSA for finding SRT, how is it done ascending, it is done the same way except you start at the low level and work up
what is the method used to find SRT that is used by most audiologist in a clinical setting but is not recommended by ASHA bracketing method
when using the bracketing method what are the steps for finding the threshold down 5 up 10 (opposite of pure tones)
when using the bracketing method is the threshold found using an ascending or descending approach ascending
T or F a SDT and SRT are not usually done on the same person because you are just trying to confirm pure tones so SRT is usually used unless it is a very young child who can not respond to SRT then use SDT true
test that is done to find out how well a person can recognize words/speech word recognition testing
word rec is a supra-threshold measure. what does this mean it is above the SRT
what level is word rec tested at 30-45 dB above SRT
why does the level where word rec is tested at require clinical decision to be made we need to look at where their hearing loss is. May need go go closer to 45 above rather than 30
how is word rec testing reported as a percentage
what are some of the reported purposes of word rec testing assist in determining site of lesion, eval social adequacy and effectiveness of communication (context clues), candidacy for surgery, hearing aid candidacy and appropriate amplification, assess central auditory function
what is the stimuli used for word rec testing monosyllabic words that are PB
what are the 2 most common word lists used for word rec, which is better CID w-22 and NU-6, both have pros and cons (it is all preference of clinician)
T or F sentence testing is a popular feature of the word rec test false, not typically used
what are some factors that may impact word rec testing physical factors (illness, age, tumor) linguistic factors (native language) or test administration variables (too quite/loud)
when somebody is beginning to have a fray on the auditory nerve what will happen to sounds loud sound will actually be harder for them to hear
how many words are generally used in word rec testing 25 (half-list)
what is a PB max when responses fall off at the end after a plateau because there is a possible auditory nerve disorder
what is an open set vs closed set regarding word rec test open set-no clues just words closed set-pictures to help give a better guess
the phrase used in word rec testing where it is always the same at the beginning of each word carrier phrase
T or F threshold testing and word rec testing are not done at the same time false, we do them together
when looking for thresholds how will they be measured dB