Unit 1: History

Question Answer
The enlightenment people have natural born rights, gov have limited power, citizens have freedom of speech and religion, focused on scientific and intellectual study
Absolute monarchy the king/queen has full/absolute power
natural rights all born rights; life, liberty, and property (due process)
john locke influences thomas jefferson in declaration, believed all natural rights, the gov must protect the rights of the people-17th century/england
montesquieu scientific method, separation of powers, 3 branches of gov, 18th century/french
separation of powers each branch limits others through checks and balences
checks and balances stops one branch from gaining too much power
american revolution colonial revolt, 13 colonies won indepedence from great britian, become the u.s.a.
declaration of independence america declared independence from great britian
thomas jefferson wrote declaration, influenced by john locke
primary source first hand doc., someone who was there
articles of confederation 1st. gov after revolution
legislative branch congress(house of reps, senate), makes laws
executive branch president, enforces laws
judicial branch supremes court> interprets the law
Connecticut (great) compromise solved the dispute between large and small states by in the senate, each state would have an equal representation, voters would elect the house of reps., # of reps. depended on state population, and state legislators choose senators.
3/5 compromise every slave counts as a 3/5 person, so smaller states could have larger populations.
ratify to be able to complete/create
bill of rights protects our rights (1-10 amendments)
northwest ordinance (same as 37) divided new territory into Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Michigan, est. rules for statehood (borders, constitution, bill of rights), banned slavery in north west territory states (first doc. to do this)
democracy gov ruled by people, right to vote, citizens have freedoms, rights, and liberties
republic representative democracy
bicameral 2 house gov
amendment (laws listed in constitution)
popular sovereignty power belongs to the people (voting)
5 grievances that colonists had against the king during the colonial period 1. doesn't allow governers to pass important laws 2. no longer protects the people, he gave up the government 3. destroyed peoples lives by burning down towns, and ravaging coasts 4. he made people turn against one another 5. no elections(hes in charge)
according to the declaration of independence, what does a gov owe its citizens? if the gov violates this requirement, what do the citizens have the right to do? the gov. owes the people natural rights. They have the right to due process (right to defend yourself's rights)
explain how enlightenment philosophy influenced jefferson and the other authors of the Declaration the enlightenment believed that citizens should have a voice in natural rights. ( john locke), the enlightenment believed in checks and balances (montisque).
structue, purpose and weaknesses of the articles of confederation structure: states hold the power,1 branch-leglislative, no executive or judicial, 1 state=1 vote , no taxing authority or nat'l military, no nat'l currency. purpose:not give the nat'l gov too much power. weakness: states had too much power
what was the source of conflict at he constitution convection between large and small states? How was it solved? how many seats each state got in the house of reps. This was resolved by 3/5 compromise
describe how the 3/5 compromise attempted to ease tensions between north and south states it made southern states have a greater population by giving them more seats in the house of reps.
idnetify and describe 3 main arguments used by antifederalists in their attempt to rally against the new constitution no mention of god, no bill of rights, loss of state power
identify and describe 3 main arguments used by federalists in support of the new constituition need stronger nat'l gov, stronger gov't to unify country, nat'l money
explain how seperation of powers and checks and balances prevents any one person or group from gaining too much power in the gov seperation of powers kept the federal gov and nat't gov from gaining too much control. checks and balances kept each individule branch from gaining too much power.
the constitution is worded very broadly and non-specifically. ; how has this allowed it to remain relevant for so long? it was left open to interpretaion. the constitution can change as the society changes
even though the constitution strengthened the nat'l gov, how does federalism allow states to maintain power? 10th amendment (reserved powers)
identify and explain 3 important provisions of the northwest ordinance. same as other ? on this
what evental impact did the northwest ordinance have on the slave debate? each state had to decide if it would allow slavery
article 1 of constitution about? legislative branch
article 2 executive branch
article 3 judicial branch
article 4 relations with states
bill of rights first 10 amendments
1 amendment freedom of speech, press, religion (establishment clause=gov can't do anything about religion and free exercise clause=you can exercise any religion you want), assembly, petition
2 amendment right to bear arms
3 amendment no quartering of troops
4 amendment no search and seizure without a warrant (unless there is probable cause)
5 amendment due process (no self incriminate, no double jeopardy, right to a grand jury)
6 amendment right to an attorney and fair speedy trial
7 amendment right to civil trials-sue (lose money)
8 amendment no cruel or unusual punishment (prevents gov. from punishing us-think of death penalty)
9 amendment unenumerated rights (amendments not listed-just b/c something isn't listed in the bill of rights doesn't mean that you can't do it)
10 amendment reserved powers-power to the states (federalism, any power that federal gov. doesn't have, they are reserved to the states)