US Constitution 3 WGU Chapter 3

Question Answer
Civil liberties can be described as which of the following? freedoms that protect citizens from the government
The Bill of Rights does which of the following? communicates what the federal government cannot do.
Following the ratification of the Constitution, who proposed amendments designed to protect citizens? the states
Prior to the passage of the Bill of Rights, how many amendments were approved by Congress? 12
For the first half of the nation's history, the Bill of Rights protected citizens from which of the following? the national gov't
Which of the following make up the First Amendment freedom of religion? both the establishment clause AND the free exercise clause
The National Cathedral does not violate the First Amendment because it does not violate which of the following? The establishment clause
How many criteria make up the Lemon test? 3
Which of the following criteria was violated in Lemon v. Kurtzman? the government action must not result in excessive government entanglement in religion.
Which of the following fall into Stage 1 of the Sherbert test? Does the government action pose a substantial burden to the person's ability to act on that belief?
Which of the following is considered a well-protected form of speech? Political Speech
Which of the following is the most important post-1920s limitation on the freedom of political speech? Direct incitement
The Citizens United decision expanded the Supreme Court's protection of political speech into which of the following arenas? campaign donations
According to Robert Richards, many cases in the future regarding student speech will primarily have to do with Internet and Computer
How many justices were in the majority and how many were in the minority in the Morse v. Frederick decision? five in the majority and four in the minority
Which constitutional amendment forms the basis for the decision in Morse v. Frederick? the First Amendment
In Tinker v. Des Moines School District, the specifics of the case had to do with Wearing black armbands
Mary Beth Tinker was protesting Vietnam War
The majority decision in Tinker v. Des Moines School District ruled that C. schools cannot ban clothing unless evidence suggests that a ban is necessary to avoid substantial interference with school discipline or the rights of others.
According to the relevant Supreme Court standard, less-protected forms of speech are those that do which of the following? both fail to contribute to the public debate and lack ideas that hold social value.
The Miller test is used as a standard to evaluate which form of speech? obscenity
Which type of speech "inflicts injury or tends to incite an immediate breach of the peace"? fighting words
An attempt by the government to block material before publication is known as which of the following? prior restraint
According to the text, which form of freedom of assembly has the Supreme Court consistently found to be worthy of protection? peaceful demonstrations in public spaces to be worthy of protection
How many amendments cover protections for the criminally accused? 5
Which of the following is an accurate statement pertaining to the rights of the criminally accused? Protections have come under scrutiny in the past two decades.
Which of the following refers to the situation in which an otherwise invalid warrant is considered valid if the officer believed he was acting within the boundaries of the law? a good-faith exception
Which of the following might be considered an "exigent circumstance"? A threat to an individual's safety
The Fifth Amendment includes which of the following under its protections? the right to due process of law, the right to a jury trial for certain crimes, protection against self-incrimination, and protection against loss of property.
Which of the following statements concerning double jeopardy is INCORRECT? Double jeopardy protects an individual from being tried for the same crime in different jurisdictions.
Which of the following reflects a change in the interpretation of the Sixth Amendment from the past 50 years? Poor defendants in felony cases are now provided counsel by the state.
Which of the following are considered rights guaranteed to the criminally accused by the Sixth Amendment? The rights to an impartial jury, a jury composed of one's peers, counsel, and a speedy trial
The Eighth Amendment and the Court's interpretation of it protect the criminally accused from which of the following? excessive bail, drawing and quartering, execution of juvenile persons, and excessive fines.
Which of the following represents an accurate statement regarding the death penalty? Several states have placed a moratorium on the death penalty.
The idea of dual citizenship in the context of civil liberties refers to which of the following? The idea of dual citizenship in the context of civil liberties refers to the fact that Americans were subject to both state and national protections.
The 14th Amendment did which of the following? reversed dual citizenship
Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding the freedom of religion? Thomas Jefferson requested that his authorship of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom be listed on his tombstone.
When did the Supreme Court incorporate the freedoms of speech, press, and assembly? in the 1920s and 1930s
Why is World War II relevant to a discussion of civil liberties? America was seen as a defender of liberty.
What characteristics made Hugo Black an anomaly? He was a member of the Ku Klux Klan, he was a liberal, AND he was from the South.
Why was Hugo Black a member of the Ku Klux Klan? organizational support, campaign contributions, and votes in order to get elected to the U.S. Senate from Alabama.
What was the significance of Gideon v. Wainwright? guaranteed a defendant's right to have legal representation in a trial.
What was the significance of Miranda v. Arizona? It required police to notify suspects of their legal rights.
Which of the following rights has NOT been incorporated? the right to a jury trial in a civil case
Which of the following rights have NOT been fully incorporated or are of questionable incorporation? both the right to bear arms AND no excessive bail and fines
The current debate over individual liberties centers on which of the following? obstacles to both personal self-realization AND political participation
In which case(s) did the Supreme Court clarify the restrictions that states may impose on abortion? BOTH Webster v. Reproductive Health Services and Planned Parenthood v. Casey
When did the Court establish the trimester system to structure a woman's rights during pregnancy? Roe v. Wade (1973)
Which state originated the law in question in the case of Roe v. Wade? Texas
Attorney Weddington, who represented “Jane Roe,” argues that the following two amendments of the Constitution support the right to privacy: 9th and 14th
According to Weddington, the Constitution attaches protection to a person: at the time of birth
In which Texas court case did the court rule that a woman who self-induces an abortion is guilty of no crime? Fondgren v. State
What was the compelling interest of Texas in Roe v. Wade? Protection of Fetal Life
According to the state of Texas, when does life begin? from the moment of impregnation
Which of the following statements best describes the trimester system devised by the Court in its opinion? States have an increasing right to regulate abortion as a pregnancy progresses, but abortion is allowed at any stage where a physician determines it is necessary to preserve the life or health of the woman.
The Supreme Court's ruling in Bowers v. Hardwick did which of the following? found that states could restrict sexual activity unrelated to procreation
What was the Court's ruling in Lawrence v. Texas? It extended the right to privacy to sexual conduct between consenting homosexual adults.
Oregon's Death with Dignity Act does which of the following? allows physicians to prescribe lethal medication for terminally ill patients
The Supreme Court's rulings on the right to die tend toward which of the following? supporting the autonomy of states in the area of physician-assisted suicide
Public health has been primarily considered a responsibility of the states.
Which term means the deliberate release of a harmful biologic agent to intimidate civilians and their government? bioterrorism
Which event(s) influenced public health preparedness to deal with biological attacks in the United States? the September 11th, 2001, terrorist attacks AND the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States
What legislation permits a governor to declare a "state of public health emergency" and gives state public health officials the authority to take over all health care facilities in a state? Model State Emergency Health Powers Act
According to George Annas, which of the following are arguments against the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act? Laws should respond to real problems The authority to respond is too broad It does not make sense to put health officials in charge of every bioterrorist event. There is no evidence that the public will not cooperate in response to a bioterrorist attack.
Which of the following is NOT a key element of public health preparedness? computing
According to Lawrence Gostin, which of the following are objections to the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act? Federalism, emergency declarations, abuse of power, AND personal and economic libertarianism.
According to Lawrence Gostin: health and security as well as personal liberty allow humans to flourish